Depending on the origin, the asphalt compound or mixture is subdivided as follows. Natural asphalt formed from heavy fractions of oil and its residue after evaporation of light components; Artificial asphalt (so-called asphalt mixture)-A building material made from a mixture of bitumen and other substances. Obviously, asphalt should contain bitumen as binder and mineral agglomerates. However, when bitumen enters natural asphalt up to 75%, the artificial asphalt concrete mix contains bitumen in the range of 4-10%. It is a bitumen unique to asphalt mixes.
Nowadays the use of asphalt become more popular and used by the driveway paving companies on a large scale but the use of asphalt is not new. It is interesting that Neolithic people used bitumen for cooking before ceramic objects. Ancient hunters and fishermen used the astringent nature of bitumen to attach the tip of a coffin or to waterproof the boat. As asphalt bitumens were used by ancient healers. In the first half of the 19th century, the appearance of asphalt and mineral mixtures covering paving stone bridges. According to records of that age, the first pavement of asphalt was laid on the sidewalks of Paris in the 1930s. Almost at the same time, the pavement of the Moran Bridge across the Rhône in Lyon became asphalt paved.
Asphalt processing in Russia is dated more accurately
1839-Asphalt treatment in St. Petersburg, the length of the pavement area was 45.5 linear meters. At the same time, part of the 8.5-meter long Tuchkov Bridge. Moscow was slightly behind the capital of the north, and pavement was placed on Tverskaya street in the ’70s, which was already a new asphalt concrete pavement.
The bitumen used in asphalt mixtures for road paving gives the roadbed elasticity and its spreading ability allows the uniform mixture to be evenly distributed covering existing road irregularities. The flat layer of pavement quickly drew attention and dramatically reduced the effects of noise from passing vehicles. In the mid-19th century, there were no signs of motor transport and the wheels of the carriage were not equipped with inflatable tires.
Bitumen is used as a road material and in many other production areas. Waterproofing equipment in buildings, structures, and sills. With the help of the bitumen, the installed pipeline system is waterproofed. Bitumen is part of the roofing material. Bitumen is required for the production of casted mastics for batteries. The cable and paint industry will not go without bitumen.
Asphalt mix type
The basis for classifying the asphalt concrete as a whole is not a basic list of the components contained in the texture of a particular mixture, but the proportions of the components, i.e. the percentage of asphalt composition, and the values of the individual determining characteristics of the components contained is added.
Divided into percentages of asphalt main components into three main types:
Mark 1 is limited to the construction of roads and urban facilities. These materials are not recommended for the role of top cover layer in roadbeds. They are used as leveling substrates for laying dense materials.
Mark 2 is the “average” asphalt concrete that is used in a wide range of applications, from new road construction to current restoration and local landscaping.
Mark 3 has no rubble. It is replaced by mineral powder and high-quality sand.
This is important! The proportions by weight of mineral constituents and bitumen determine the strength of the asphalt concrete web. Sand mixtures are only suitable for landscaping in the park, but high bitumen content is required to cover highways.
Natural asphalt means rock with a low melting point and fragile structure. Reservoir deposits are commonly found in the field of oil production. In oil-producing areas, permeable soils impregnated with natural asphalt can actually be found on the surface. Artificial asphalt concrete is a mixture of mineral agglomerates containing a bituminous binder. After compression, the material forms a compact coating on the road, site. Actively use asphalt mastics in modern construction. If the roof or waterproof generally use asphalt.
Asphalt concrete brand
In asphalt concrete, paved pavements are stacked in layers and heavy special vehicles roll. Each layer has its own meaning and imposes specific requirements. Furthermore, the brand of material used depends on the purpose of the road, the strength of its operation. The main difference between asphalt types is technical specifications. For example, the lower layers of the road are produced with large rubble, and fine sand and stone asphalt are used to complete the road carpet. On the sidewalk, the pedestrian part of the road draws a trace of sand. The rubber-bitumen composition is paved in a bicycle lane, a stadium. Gravel-mastic asphalt is steadily carrying heavy luggage in airfields, urban areas, and high traffic areas. Polymer-The bitumen brand is used in the construction of bridges and parking coatings. The composition of fine or coarse aggregates is most common. Component proportions reflect the following typical classification: And half is made of rubble.
B-40% gravel and crushed stone present in the composition.
B-Large aggregations have a 30% share.
G-screening and sanding within 30%.
D-Screening with about 70% natural sand.
Asphalt concrete is divided into three grades (I, II, III) according to composition and density. The strongest is the third grader. It consists of sandy fillers, asphalt, and mineral powder.
Composition of the asphalt mixture and manufacturing technology
The impurities are removed from the course and fine filler, divided into fractions and dried. In the manufacturing process, the particle size and the water content of the components are very important. The interaction of the high-temperature bitumen with the liquid causes the active foaming of the mixture. Safety rules when dealing with bitumen prohibit pouring water into regular containers with bitumen. An exception is a special device for road construction that makes use of the antagonistic nature of the substance. Bitumen binders are by-products of the refining industry. The asphalt content is less than 9%. During the entire run, pure bitumen can be subjected to hundreds of heating and cooling cycles without collapse, losing its elastic properties and collapses. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various additives, plasticizers, and stabilizers. Additives can play the role of sulfur, ash, and rubber. Chemical constituents increase the coating’s resistance to frost against aggressive atmospheric exposure. The asphalt plant used warm and warm, cold technology. Hot methods are continuous and energy-intensive processes. Companies start production in the spring when the season comes. Cold techniques are cheap and can be used regardless of the season.
Foamed bitumen is manufactured in special units that work with water and steam. As a result of using this technology, labor costs are reduced and efficient mixing of raw materials occurs directly at construction sites and asphalt plants. Repaired road clothing with the help of form bitumen process dry filler. The bitumen layer provides good adhesion of the particles. Foamed bitumen is suitable for repair work. In the cold method, a moist filling is used.